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Today in History

1914
Montenegro declares war on Germany
1932
Songwriter and singer, Mel Tillis born in Tampa, Florida
1937
Academy and Golden Globe Award winning actor, Dustin Hoffman born in Los Angeles, California
1938
Actress and singer Connie Stevens born Concetta Rosalie Anna Ingoglia in Brooklyn, New York
1945
Soviet Union declares war on Japan
1949
Songwriter and Academy Award winning actor, Keith Carradine born in San Mateo, California
1963
The Great Train Robbery $7,368,000
1974
President Richard Nixon announces his intention to resign
449
The Council of Ephesus upholds the Monophysite view
869
Death of Lothair, King of Lorraine
1075
Abu al-Qasim az-Samakhshari, Persian theologian, philologist born
1296
The Stone of Scone stolen by Edward I, King of England
1296
A priest, one Matthew of York, and one William le Waleys, are accused of burglary of 3 shillings worth of beer, in Perth
1306
Murder of Wenceslas III, King of Poland
1308
The Pope summons witnesses for the Templar trials
1471
Death of Thomas Kempis at the age of 91. He was a Dutch mystic and devotional author.
1503
Marriage of Margaret of England to King James IV of Scotland
1540
Marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Catherine Howard
1553
Girolamo Fracastoro, physician, poet, scientist, dies
1570
Charles IX, King of France, signs the Treaty of St. Germain
1602
Gilles Personne de Roberval, French geometrician, inventor born
1609
Venetian Senate examines Galileo's telescope
1648
Ibrahim "the Mad," Ottoman Sultan, deposed and killed.
1652
Jacques Basnage, French Reformed Church clergyman. He aided diplomatically in arranging Triple Alliance at the Hague. born
1763
Charles Bullfinch, 1st US professional architect. born
1794
Jean Henri Merle d'Aubigne, Swiss ecclesiatical historian. Authoer of a multi-volume history of the Reformation. born
1810
Emmanuel M. J. d'Alzon, founder of the Augustinians of the Assumption. born
1814
George E. Ellis, Unitarian clergyman. Editor of the Christian Register and Christian Examiner. born
1815
Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for St. Helena to spend the remainder of his days in exile.
1844
Brigham Young was chosen to lead the Mormons following the killing of Joseph Smith.
1852
The Swedish Baptist General Conference of America began with the baptism of three persons from Rock Island, Ill. in the Mississippi River. They we baptised by Gustaf Palmquist of Sweden.
1866
Matthew Henson (explorer with Robert Peary] born
1874
Modest Mussorgsky completed "Pictures at an Exhibition" on this day in 1874. It was inspired by a real-life exhibition of paintings by Victor Hartmann. Mussorgsky attended, and made musical sketches.
1876
Thomas A. Edison received a patent for his mimeograph.
1876
Metropolitan Leonty, dean of the first Russian Orthodox theological seminary in the United States (1906-1915). born
1896
Author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (The Yearling) born
1899
A.T. Marshall of Brockton, MA patented the refrigerator on this day.
1907
Jazz musician Benny Carter born
1908
Former Supreme Court Justice Arthur Goldberg. born
1910
Actress Sylvia Sidney born
1911
Actress Rosetta LeNoire born
1911
Membership in the U.S. House of Representatives was established at 435 on this day. Every 211,877 residents of the U.S. were represented by one member of Congress.
1919
Producer Dino DeLaurentiis born
1922
Actor Rory Calhoun (Francis Durgin)(Angel, Apache Uprising, River of No return, Treasure of Pancho Villa) born
1922
Rudi Gernreich, designed 1st women's topless swimsuit & the miniskirt born
1923
Actress Esther Williams born
1926
Actor Richard Anderson born
1930
Joan Mondale (wife of former Vice President Walter F. Mondale) born
1930
Actress Nita Talbot born
1932
Singer Mel Tillis born
1937
Actor Dustin Hoffman born
1938
Actress Connie Stevens born
1939
Country singer Phil Balsley (The Statler Brothers) born
1940
The German Luftwaffe began a series of daylight air raids on Britain.
1942
Six convicted Nazi saboteurs who'd landed in the US were executed in Washington DC; two others received life imprisonment.
1944
Movie director Peter Weir ("Fearless", "The Truman Show") born
1945
The Soviet Union declared war against Japan during World War Two.
1945
The Soviet Union declared war on Japan,two days after the atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and seven days before Tokyo surrendered.
1945
President Truman signed the United Nations Charter.
1947
Actor Larry Wilcox born
1949
Actor Keith Carradine born
1949
Rhythm-and-blues singer Airrion Love (The Stylistics) born
1949
Brian Sipe (Cleveland Browns U.S. Football League [1985-86]) born
1950
Country singer Jamie O'Hara born
1951
Movie director Martin Brest born
1953
Actor Donny Most born
1953
The United States and South Korea initiated a mutual security pact.
1957
Rock musician Dennis Drew (10,000 Maniacs) born
1958
Newscaster Deborah Norville born
1958
Actor-singer Harry Crosby born
1960
Decca Records in Britain destroyed 25,000 copies of "Tell Laura I Love Her," saying the song was "too tasteless and vulgar for the English sensibility."
1961
Rock musician Rikki Rockett (Poison) born
1961
Rock musician The Edge (U2) born
1962
Rapper Kool Moe Dee born
1963
Britain's "Great Train Robbery" took place as thieves made off with 2.6 million pounds in banknotes.
1967
Ginastera's opera"Bomarzo" was banned in his homeland of Argentina. Military authorities, who were many years from losing the Falklands War and still had a tight grip on Argentinean society, said "Bomarzo" was too violent for public consumption.
1968
Richard M. Nixon was nominated for president at the Republican national convention in Miami Beach. (Later that day, Nixon chose Maryland Governor Spiro T. Agnew to be his running mate.)
1973
Country singer Mark Wills born
1973
Vice President Spiro T. Agnew branded as "damned lies" reports he had taken kickbacks from government contracts in Maryland, and vowed not to resign -- which he eventually did.
1974
President Nixon announced he would resign following new damaging revelations in the Watergate scandal.
1975
Hank Williams, Jr., the son of the legendary country singer Hank Williams, fell 500 feet down a mountain in Montana. He suffered multiple injuries, but after two years of surgery, he returned to music as a legend in his own right.
1976
Rhythm-and-blues singer Drew Lachey (98 Degrees) born
1976
Singer JC Chasez ('N Sync) born
1978
Odie the dog, Garfield's best fiend, fist appeared in the cartoon.
1983
A jury in Kansas City, Missouri, awarded TV anchorwoman Christine Craft $500,000 in her sex discrimination suit against the former owner of KMBC-TV. The award was later overturned.
1983
Brig. Gen. Efrain Rios Montt was deposed as president of Guatemala.
1984
Carl Lewis won his third gold medal of the Summer Olympic Games, winning the 200 meters race in a time of 19.80 seconds.
1985
A bomb exploded outside the Rhein-Mein U.S. air base near Frankfurt, killing two Americans, in an attack blamed on the Red Army Faction.
1986
17 people were killed when a car bomb exploded in a shopping district in west Beirut - the third car-bombing in the Lebanese capital in 12 days.
1987
The opening ceremonies of the Pan American Games were held in Indianapolis, Indiana. A two-hour extravaganza called "The Magic That's America" was presented at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
1987
In the Persian Gulf, a Navy F-14 "Tomcat" fighter fired two missiles at an Iranian jet approaching an unarmed US scout plane. Both missiles missed their target, and the Iranian plane flew off.
1988
Britain's Princess Beatrice Elizabeth Mary born
1988
UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar announced a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq.
1988
The Duchess of York, the former Sarah Ferguson, wife of Britain's Prince Andrew, gave birth to their first child, a girl they name Beatrice.
1989
The space shuttle Columbia blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a secret five-day military mission that reportedly included the deployment of a spy satellite.
1990
As the Persian Gulf crisis deepened, American forces began taking up positions in Saudi Arabia; Iraq announced it had annexed Kuwait; President Bush warned Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that "a line has been drawn in the sand.""
1991
Lebanese kidnappers freed British TV producer John McCarthy, held hostage for more than five years; however, a rival group abducted Frenchman Jerome Leyraud, threatening to kill him if any more hostages were released.
1991
The slain bodies of former Iranian Prime Minister Shahpour Bakhtiar and his chief of staff were found in Bakhtiar's residence outside Paris.
1991
The U.N. Security Council unanimously approved membership applications from North and South Korea.
1992
Eight people were injured when more than 10,000 fans rioted inside a stadium in Montreal after Guns N' Roses canceled its concert in mid-show. It was the second riot linked to the rock group and its lead singer, Axl Rose.
1992
The US basketball "Dream Team" clinched the gold at the Barcelona Summer Olympics, defeating Croatia 117-to-85.
1992
The space shuttle "Atlantis" returned from a problem-plagued mission. AIDS activist Alison Gertz died in Westhampton Beach, Long Island, New York, at age 26.
1992
AIDS activist Alison Gertz died in Westhampton Beach, Long Island, New York, at age 26.
1993
In Somalia, four US soldiers were killed when a land mine was detonated underneath their vehicle, prompting President Clinton to order Army Rangers to try to capture Somali warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
1994
Israel and Jordan opened the first road link between the two once-warring countries; Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin became the first Israeli head of government to officially set foot on Jordanian soil.
1995
President Clinton ordered all companies doing business with the federal government to report the pollution they cause. This was said during a visit to Baltimore.
1995
The regime of Iraq's Saddam Hussein was shaken when his two eldest daughters, their husbands and other senior army officers defected.
1996
President Clinton belittled Bob Dole's tax plan, vowing to oppose tax cuts that he said the country couldn't afford. Republican sources, meanwhile, said Dole was seriously considering Jack Kemp to be his running mate.
1997
The Teamsters and United Parcel Service completed a second day of federally mediated talks, with neither side reporting progress toward ending a strike.
1998
President Clinton, in his Saturday radio address, vowed the bombers of two US embassies in Africa would be brought to justice, "no matter how long it takes or where it takes us."
1999
Opening a new attack on the Republican tax-cut measure, President Clinton warned the nation's governors at their meeting in St. Louis that the $792 billion package would trigger "huge cuts" in Medicare, farm programs and other spending critical to their voters.
2000
A bomb ripped through an underground walkway in central Moscow, killing at least 13 people.
2000
Chile's Supreme Court stripped General Augusto Pinochet's immunity, clearing the way for the former dictator to be tried on human rights charges. (However, an appeals court later ruled Pinochet unfit to stand trial because of his deteriorating health and mental condition.)
2000
Vice President Al Gore formally introduced and celebrated his Jewish running mate, Senator Joseph Lieberman, during an appearance in Gore's home state of Tennessee.
2005
India, Pakistan begin next round of talks
2005
Slovenian alpinist in rescue on Nanga Parbat
2005
Reports indicate Bush appointing friend to lead Plame inquiry
2005
Space Shuttle Discovery STS-114 landing postponed for weather
2005
'Afghanistan is a 20-year venture' warns Canadian general
2005
ABC News anchor Peter Jennings dies at 67
2005
Koizumi has dissolved the Japanese Diet in response to rejection of postal services commercialization bill
2006
Police seize $1 million worth of cannabis in southwestern Sydney
2006
Colombia's Uribe sworn in to second term as president
2006
Effort to end monkey-ing around on Delhi's subway
2006
Christchurch, New Zealand floods causes havoc
2006
Former Australian cricketer Dean Jones sacked after "terrorist" comment
2006
Talks continue over UN resolution on Lebanon war
2006
19 killed in Baghdad blast
2006
Australia's 15th census to be held tonight
2006
US box office breakouts for August 8, 2006
2006
Fredrik Ljungberg named captain of Swedish football team
2007
North and South Korea to hold second summit
2007
Strong earthquake shakes Indonesia's capital Jakarta
2007
MLB: Barry Bonds breaks Hank Aaron's home run record
2007
League table of world universities published: top three from USA
2007
Giant Lego man found in sea
2007
Dutch MP advocates proscription of Koran
2007
Reports: Parents of missing girl Madeleine McCann are suspects in her disappearance
2007
Wikipedia features Encyclopædia Britannica on its main page
2008
Former US Senator John Edwards admits to extramarital affair
2008
Governments 'concerned' by situation in Ossetia
2008
Four British Airways executives charged with price fixing
2008
Maine resident arrested in Florida for death threats to Bush, Obama
2008
Pakistan civilian government unites in a coalition to impeach President Pervez Musharraf
2008
Juan Bustos, president of Chilean House of Representatives dies
2008
Russia joins South Ossetian war
2008
Olympic Games officially open
2008
Train hits collapsed bridge in Czech Republic, killing ten
2008
US government points to dead scientist as 'lone anthrax attacker'
2008
Nader chosen as the presidential nominee of the Peace and Freedom Party
2009
Philippines hit by Typhoon "Kiko" (Morakot), dozens killed
2009
Small plane and helicopter collide over Hudson River in New York City
2009
Spanish football captain dies at 26
2009
Drug cartel and police shootouts erupt in Mexico
2010
Western Australian court to set precedent on the burqa
2010
Australian rules football: Gippsland Football League round 16 split round week two
2010
US unemployment rate remains unchanged at 9.5% in July
2010
Poll: Arabs discouraged by US policies, back nuclear-armed Iran
2010
Flash floods kill over a hundred in India, 500 missing
2011
Boeing rolls out first 787 Dreamliner to go into service
2011
United States Government loses AAA credit rating from Standard and Poor's
2011
Hugh Carey, former New York Governor, dies aged 92
2011
Bill to eliminate corruption does not go far enough, say Indian activists and lawyers
2012
Olympics gymnastics finals conclude with wins for Netherlands, United States, China
2013
Tokyo Electric Power Company releases first figures on the extent of Fukushima leakage

In the early days of Unix, a date-tagged list of historical events was used by system administrators to add some interest to the system's Message of the Day. Whenever users logged in they would be presented with the latest system notices, perhaps some mildly amusing quotes and one or two lines of historical events, based on the current date.

Today in History (UNIX calendar) uses some of the entries from the original library but is updated with current events as well. Instead of plain text, each entry is now formatted in HTML and each day may include one or more icons of historical figures or celebrities.

Other things unique to the UNIX calendar are references to dates found in fictional literature such as Lord of the Rings, perhaps undue emphasis on people and events that were part of popular culture in the 70's and technical minutiae about computers and operating systems that might not be found in other places.

In association with Amazon, this symbol is a link to related products at amazon.com. Any proceeds resulting from the sales of these products are used to defray the cost of maintaining the Today in History site and editorial efforts.

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