Death of St. James the Greater
The Council of Nicea closed. Regarded as the first 'ecumenical council,' its 300 attending bishops drafted the Nicene Creed and fixed the formula for Easter Sunday.
Constantine refuses to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices.
Thietmar, Bishop of Merseburg (German chronicler) born
Alphonso I, King of Portugal, defeats the Moors
Coronation, again, of Fredrick II as King of Germany
Michael VIII recovers Constantinople - end of Latin Empire of Romania
John Chaucer, father of Geoffrey, summoned for non-payment of rent
Charles VI of France issues a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.
Marriage of Mary Tudor, Queen of England, to Philip of Spain
Death of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Maximillian II becomes emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Founding of Caracas, Venezuela
Ivan IV, "the Terrible" Czar of Russia, attends the public execution of almost all of his advisers and ministers
Astronomer Christoph Scheiner born
Japanese strong-man Hideyoshi bans Christianity in Japan and orders all Christians to leave.
Henry IV, Protestant King of France, becomes a Catholic "Paris is worth a Mass!"
Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Thomas Dale run aground at Bermuda
Death of Andreas Libavius, German alchemist
Captain William Norton sent to Jamestown, Virginia
Death of the Reverend William Burkit
Revolutionary War Gen. Henry Knox born
Anna Symmes Harrison 1st lady born
Aaron Burr visits New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
George Stephenson of England tested his first steam locomotive.
Schubert, having gotten good notices for a composition, wrote his father not to be too pleased by that, because, he said, "a review, however favorable, can be ludicrous if the critic lacks normal intelligence, which is often the case."
Flora Adams Darling founded Daughters of American Revolution born
Artist Thomas Eakins born
Arthur James Balfour, prime Minister of Great Britain, 1902-1905 born
Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.
Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory.
Artist Maxfield Parrish born
The merry-go-round was invented by William Schneider of Davenport, Iowa.
This day is known as the rain of black worms. Thousands of black worms fell from the sky over Bucharest, Rumania.
American philosopher and mathematician Morris Raphel Cohen born
The composer Alfredo Casella born
Actor Walter Brennan born
Stuart K. Hine. While an English missionary to the Ukraine, Hine penned the English words to an Swedish hymn, known today as 'How Great Thou Art.' born
Philosopher and author of In Our Time Eric Hoffer born
French aviator Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel a monoplane, traveling from Calais to Dover 37 minutes.The first person to fly a "heavier-than-air machine" across the English Channel.
Actress Estelle Getty (Golden Girls) born
Austrian chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss is shot and killed by Nazis.
Jazz musician Don Ellis born
Actress Barbara Harris (Plaza Suite, Family Plot. Tony award winning actress in The Apple Tree) born
Benito Mussolini was dismissed as premier of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel the Third, and placed under arrest. (However, Mussolini was later rescued by the Nazis, and re-asserted his authority.)
Singer Donna Theodore born
The United States detonated an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll the Pacific the first underwater test of the device.
Rock musician Verdine White (Earth, Wind & Fire) born
Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.
51 people died when the Italian liner "Andrea Doria" sank after colliding with the Swedish ship "Stockholm" off the New England coast.
Cartoonist Ray Billingsley ("Curtis") born
Rock musician Thurston Moore (Sonic Youth) born
Vice President Richard Nixon squares off against Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev during the so-called Kitchen debate in Moscow.
The United States, the Soviet Union and Britain initialed a treaty Moscow prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, space or underwater.
Actress Illeana Douglas born
Country singer Marty Brown born
Actor Matt LeBlanc ("Friends") born
Pope Paul VI published the encyclical 'Humanae Vitae.' It restated the Catholic position on the family, and condemned all artificial methods of birth control.
"Einstein on the Beach" premiered. Philip Glass's opera, Minimalist in style and maximalist in scope, was sung at the Avignon Festival. French audiences responded well, especially after hearing that the composer was a New York taxi driver.
Louise Joy Brown, the first "test tube baby," was born Oldham, England; she'd been conceived through the technique of in-vitro fertilization.
President Carter issued a letter absolving Dr. Samuel Mudd, the physician who had treated the broken leg on John Wilkes Booth, of any role in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.
The lowest natural temperature ever recorded occurred in Antartica. The thermometer dropped to -129 degrees F.
Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk space as she carried out more than three hours of experiments outside the orbiting space station "Salyut Seven."
A spokeswoman for Rock Hudson confirmed that the actor, hospitalized in Paris, was suffering from "AIDS." (Hudson died the following October.)
Masked Sikh extremists shot and killed 15 people, 14 of them Hindus, in an ambush on a bus at a railroad crossing in India's Punjab state.
Movie director Vincente Minnelli, known for such film musicals as "Gigi," "An American in Paris," and "The Band Wagon," died in Los Angeles at age 76.
Former Navy radioman Jerry Whitworth was convicted of selling U.S. military secrets to the Soviets through the John Walker spy ring. The government called it the most damaging espionage case since World War II.
Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige died of internal injuries he sustained while participating in a rodeo. (He was suceeded by C. William Verity.)
A judge in New York ordered the feuding San Diego Yacht Club and a New Zealand challenger to settle the battle for the America's Cup with a September race. (The Americans used a two-hulled catamaran to easily defeat the New Zealanders' monohull, setting off a legal dispute that ended two years later in victory for the American team.)
The pilot of the United DC-10 that crashed in Sioux City, Iowa, July 19th, Alfred C. Haynes, appeared at a news conference in which he dismissed descriptions of himself as a hero after he and his crew managed to save 184 of the 296 people aboard the crippled aircraft.
The U.S. ambassador to Iraq, April Glaspie, met with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to discuss Iraq's economic dispute with Kuwait.
Comedian Roseanne Barr sparked controversy with an off-key rendition of the "Star-Spangled Banner" during a double-header at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego.
Eastern Airlines and 10 present and former managers were indicted on federal charges of faking maintenance records.
The Senate voted 96-0 to denounce Sen. Dave Durenberger, R-Minn., for ethics violations.
Mikhail S. Gorbachev, the leader of the former Soviet Union, told Communist Party leaders that building Communism was no longer a realistic goan and that the party must reject "outdated ideological dogmas."
A deadline for Iraq to provide full details of its weapons of mass destruction passed, with U.S. officials indicating military action was not imminent.
The South African government admitted donating $35 billion in 1989 to support political parties opposing the South-West Africa People's Organization.
The Italian government sent 7,000 soldiers to Sicily in a crackdown on the "Mafia."
Opening ceremonies were held in Barcelona, Spain, for the 1992 Summer Olympics. Antonio Rebollo, a bronze medalist archer from Madrid, shot a flaming arrow into the cauldron touching off the flame that would burn during the 15-day games.
Actor-singer Alfred Drake died New York at age 78.
Israelis launched a week of raids on guerrilla bases in south Lebanon, while guerrillas fired rockets into Israel; the fighting ended July 31st with a US-brokered cease-fire.
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Raband Jordan's King Husse signed a declaration at the White House ending their countries' 46-year-old formal state of war.
A U.N. war crimes tribunal indicted Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, army commander General Ratko Mladic, and 22 other Serbs for war crimes.
A bomb exploded on a Paris subway, killing seven people and injuring at least 60.
Divers searching the wreckage of TWA Flight 800 off Long Island, New York, recovered the flight data and cockpit voice recorders.
Autumn Jackson, the young woman who claimed to be Bill Cosby's out-of-wedlock daughter, was convicted by a federal jury in New York of trying to extort $40 million from the entertainer.
K.R. Narayanan was sworn in as India's president, becoming the first member of the "untouchable" Dalits caste to do so.
Golfer Ben Hogan died in Fort Worth, Texas, at age 84.
Two government officials revealed that special prosecutor Kenneth Starr had subpoenaed President Clinton to testify before a federal grand jury about the Monica Lewinsky case.
The US Capitol was reopened, a day after a gunman killed two police officers; a wounded suspect, Russell E. Weston Junior, was charged with murder.
Lance Armstrong rode to victory in the Tour de France. Morocco held a funeral for King Hassan II.
The Woodstock '99 music festival in Rome, N.Y., ended in fires and looting.
A New York-bound Air France Concorde crashed outside Paris shortly after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four people on the ground; it was the first-ever crash of the supersonic jet.
Texas Governor George W. Bush selected Dick Cheney to be his running mate.
Fifth bomb discovered in London after July 21 attacks
Rules may be bent to launch Discovery
Britain's Royal Windsor Castle to get hydro-electric power plant
Bush likely to appoint Bolton during congressional recess
A 5.6 Richter quake hits Western Montana
Brazilians call for arrest of UK policemen after shooting death
First Chinese tourists arrive in the UK
California students continue struggle with Exit Exam in classrooms, courtroom
Jewel in King Tut's necklace created by possible asteroid impact
Doha round of trade talks suspended after negotiations fail
Man's romantic e-mail goes worldwide
Scandal Appeals see Lazio and Fiorentine reinstated back into Serie A
US Marine Corps sets up MySpace profile
New Zealand man arrested for murdering teacher
Tour de France: Michael Rasmussen wins stage 16
Tour de France: Yellow jersey Rasmussen withdrawn
ETA places explosives on Tour de France route in Spain
Former MLB player Rollie Stiles dies
Taliban execute one Korean hostage; reports of release denied
Auckland International Airport may become a hub for Emirates Airline
Changes in Fred Thompson US Presidential campaign
UK's Liverpool FC unveils plans for new stadium
Gas tanks explode at facility in Texas, US
"Last Lecture" Professor Randy Pausch dies at age 47
Hole in fuselage causes Qantas flight to make emergency landing
British boy drowns while on holiday with family in Portugal
Minimum wage in United States increases to $6.55
Fernando Alonso takes pole at Hungarian Grand Prix, Felipe Massa badly injured
Tilting train derails in Croatia, six dead
Venezuelan army on high alert after ChÃ¡vez cuts diplomatic ties with Colombia
Hong Kong teenager murders mother and sister
BP CEO Tony Hayward to resign, say analysts
Stampede at German music festival kills nineteen
Venezuelan president Hugo ChÃ¡vez cuts relations with Colombia
Brush fire starts in Hawaii's Makua Valley
Open Rights Group holds first conference in London
77 die in train crash in Santiago de Compostela, Spain