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Today in History

1580
Camoes Day in Portugal
1692
Bridget Bishop is hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts for witchcraft
1922
Oscar nominated actress and singer, Judy Garland born Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids Minnesota
1926
Actress June Haver born Beverly Jane Stovenour in Rock Island, Illinois
1939
Actress Alexandra Stewart born in Montreal, Qu├ębec
1951
NFL ProBowl quarterback Dan Fouts born in San Francisco, California
1965
Fashion model and actress, Elizabeth Jane Hurley born in Basingstoke, England
1971
Denver police tear gas Jethro Tull and 2000 fans at Red Rocks Amphitheater
1190
Frederick Barbarossa drowns in a river while leading an army of the Third Crusade.
1639
First American log cabin at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Delaware).
1720
Mrs. Clements of England markets first paste-style mustard.
1735
Physician-in-chief of Continental Army, John Morgan born
1772
Burning of the Gaspee, British revenue cutter by Rhode Islanders.
1776
The Continental Congress appoints a committee to write a Declaration of Independence.
1801
The north African state of Tripoli declared war on the United States in a dispute over safe passage of merchant vessels through the Mediterranean.
1836
Japanese swordsman Yamaoka Tesshu born
1854
The U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, holds its first graduation.
1861
Dorthea Dix, known for her work with the mentally ill, is appointed superintendent of women nurses for the Union Army.
1863
At the Battle of Brice's Crossroads in Mississippi, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest defeats the numerically superior Union troops.
1865
The opera "Tristan und Isolde" by Richard Wagner premiered in Munich, Germany. This sent the impressionable young King Ludwig into throes of Wagner worship.
1869
The 'Agnes' arrives in New Orleans with the first ever shipment of frozen beef.
1895
Academy Award-winning actress Hattie McDaniel born
1898
During the Spanish-American War, U.S. Marines land in Cuba.
1904
Frederick Loewe, composer born
1905
Japan and Russia agree to peace talks brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt.
1916
Mecca, under control of the Turks, falls to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt.
1920
The Republican convention in Chicago endorses woman suffrage.
1921
Britain's Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II born
1922
American actress and singer Judy Garland (Frances Gumm), in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. born
1924
The Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti is kidnapped and assassinated by Fascists in Rome.
1925
Columnist Nat Hentoff born
1925
Tennessee adopts a new biology text book denying the theory of evolution.
1926
Actress June Haver born
1926
Actor-director Lloyd Jeffries born
1928
Children's author and illustrator Maurice Sendak born
1932
Actor Gardner McKay born
1932
First demonstration of artificial lightning Pittsfield, Mass.
1933
American defense attorney F. Lee Bailey born
1934
Frederick Delius died, at his home in rural northern France. Delius lived to 72 despite extremely frail health for years. Five years before his death, Delius saw his music secure its position in the repertory when Thomas Beecham organized a festival wholly of his music.
1935
Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in Akron, Ohio, by William G. Wilson and Dr. Robert Smith.
1939
Actress Alexandra Stewart born
1940
The Norwegian army capitulates to the Germans.
1940
Italy declared war on France and Britain; Canada declared war on Italy.
1941
Singer Shirley Alston (The Shirelles) born
1941
Actor Jurgen Prochnow born
1942
Germany razes the town of Lidice, Czechoslovakia and kills more than 1,300 citizens in retribution of the murder of Reinhard Heydrich.
1943
Media commentator Jeff Greenfield born
1943
The Allies begin bombing Germany around the clock.
1943
Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes first US president to visit a foreign country during wartime.
1944
Joe Nuxhall at 15 years became youngest ML baseball player.
1944
The U.S. VII and V corps, advancing from Normandys Utah and Omaha beaches, respectively, link-up and begin moving inland.
1946
Italy replaced its abolished monarchy with a republic.
1951
Dan Fouts born
1952
Country singer-songwriter Thom Schuyler born
1955
First virus separated into component parts is reported.
1955
Actor Andrew Stevens born
1956
Singer Barrington Henderson born
1959
Rocky Colovito hits 4 homers in 1 game.
1963
Actress Jeanne Tripplehorn born
1963
Buddhist monk Ngo Quang Duc dies by self immolation in Saigon to protest persecution by the Diem government.
1964
Rock musician Jimmy Chamberlin (Smashing Pumpkins) born
1964
The Senate voted to limit further debate on a proposed civil rights bill, shutting off a filibuster by Southern states.
1965
Country singer-songwriter Ken Mellons born
1965
Model-actress Elizabeth Hurley born
1966
Actor Doug McKeon born
1967
Rock musician Emma Anderson born
1967
The Middle East War ended as Israel and Syria agreed to observe a United Nations-mediated cease-fire.
1970
Rock singer M. Doughty (Soul Coughing) born
1971
Rhythm-and-blues singer Jo-Jo born
1973
Rhythm-and-blues singer Faith Evans born
1977
James Earl Ray, the convicted assassin of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Junior, escaped from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Tennessee with six others; he was recaptured June 13th.
1977
Apple Computer ships its first Apple II.
1978
Rhythm-and-blues singer Lemisha Grinstead (702) born
1978
"Affirmed" won the Belmont Stakes and with it, horse racing's Triple Crown.
1978
Yankees trade Ken Holzman for Ron Davis.
1982
Actress Leelee Sobieski ("Joan of Arc" mini-series) born
1982
Olympic gold medal figure skater Tara Lipinski born
1984
An Italian prosecutor's report linked the Bulgarian secret service to the 1981 assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II.
1985
The Israeli army pulls out of Lebanon after 1,099 days of occupation.
1987
South Koreans demanding free elections launched a wave of violent demonstrations.
1989
"Easy Goer" won the Belmont Stakes in New York, denying the Triple Crown to Kentucky Derby and Preakness winner "Sunday Silence."
1990
Two members of the rap group 2 Live Crew were arrested in Hollywood, Fla. (They and a third band member were later acquitted of obscenity charges.)
1990
Alberto Fujimori was elected president of Peru by a narrow margin over novelist Mario Vargos Llosa.
1991
Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted, spewing debris as far as 20 miles away.
1994
President Clinton intensified sanctions against Haiti's military leaders, suspending US commercial air travel and most financial transactions between the two countries.
1995
U.S. Air Force Capt. Scott O'Grady, rescued after being shot down over Bosnia, described his six-day ordeal at a news conference at Aviano Air Base in Italy, saying he was no Rambo and no hero.
1995
A bomb blamed on drug traffickers exploded in Medellin, Colombia, killing 26 people. Thoroughbred Thunder Gulch won the Belmont Stakes.
1998
A jury in Jacksonville, Florida ordered Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corporation to pay nearly one million dollars to the family of Roland Maddox, who had died after smoking Lucky Strikes for almost 50 years. (However, a Florida appeals court later overturned the verdict.)
1999
The Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the city of Chicago went too far in its fight against street gangs by ordering police to break up groups of loiterers.
1999
Yugoslav troops departed Kosovo, prompting NATO to suspend its punishing 78-day air war.
2000
Syrian President Hafez Assad died at age 69; he was succeeded by his son, Bashar.
2000
The New Jersey Devils won their second Stanley Cup in six seasons with a 2-to-1 victory in double overtime over the Dallas Stars in Game Six of the finals.
2000
Frenchwoman Mary Pierce beat Conchita Martinez 6-2, 7-5 to win the French Open women's singles title.
2004
Rhythm-and-blues singer Ray Charles dies in Beverly Hills, CA
2005
Thousands of Rwandan refugees living in overcrowded Burundi transit centre
2005
The Finnish Social Democrats elect a new leader
2005
U.N. condemns lack of due process in American-run Iraq prisons
2005
600,000 new dollar millionaires created in 2004
2005
Interpol on the hunt for 'Dr.Death'
2005
Storing IP-addresses of Swedish copyright infringers deemed illegal
2005
Bombs kill US Marines, civillians in Iraq
2005
British man involved in deal to drill for oil in Darfur
2006
Australian government to review censorship of "hate material"
2006
Pilot with 9/11 links deported from New Zealand
2006
Second fire in 24 hours hits Muslim building in the Netherlands
2006
Two teenagers killed in Greater Manchester
2006
Plane lands safely in Seoul after losing radar, nose and windows in storm
2006
All Blacks defeat Ireland in rugby
2006
Scotland go down to South Africa in rugby
2006
England wins first match with 1-0 victory in Group B
2006
Oklahoma State men's golf wins 10th NCAA title
2006
Shiv Sena activists disrupt news conference in Jammu
2006
Rebels blow up oil pipelines in Assam
2006
Prix de West exhibit opens in Oklahoma City
2006
'Net Neutrality Amendment' fails in U.S. House
2006
Trinidad and Tobago hold Sweden in second Group B match
2006
Cherokee Nation tribunal approves new Constitution
2006
New Hawaii airline sparks fare war, free seat giveaway
2006
Argentina start with 2-1 win in Group C
2006
First Tropical Depression of Forms
2006
Scientists discover new kind of shark in northwest Atlantic
2006
Grolier Poetry Bookshop has new owner
2006
Iraq: Alleged death squad members beheaded in new video
2007
Lewis Hamilton wins Canadian Grand Prix
2007
German man invents 'cat cam'
2007
Aeroflot negotiates purchase of 22 new Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft
2007
Nicaragua's Ortega visits Imam Khamenei in Iran
2007
Italian senators lobby for ice cream
2007
5 killed, 255 rescued as ferry catches fire in Philippines
2007
Light plane flips over during landing at air show in Worcester, UK
2007
Six dead, one injured in Wisconsin, USA shooting
2007
Woman disclosed by newspaper in sex tape found dead
2007
More than 100 demonstrate against data retention in Vienna, Austria
2007
Bollywood cricket victory in Yorkshire charity match
2008
US energy department reveals world's fastest computer
2008
Plane crashes in Khartoum
2009
Gunman kills one at Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C.
2009
Creigh Deeds wins Virginia Democratic primary
2010
South Korean Naro-1 space rocket explodes after take-off
2010
'Dewey Defeats Truman' incident in California State Senate election
2010
Man dies after being shot outside his house in Lanarkshire, Scotland; murder investigation launched
2010
Football: Chelsea confirm Joe Cole and Michael Ballack departure
2010
Noynoy Aquino elected Philippine president
2010
Two Norwegians sentenced to death in DR Congo
2012
Kenyan helicopter crash kills security minister
2012
Explosion reported in Damascus, Syria
2013
Man dies in North Uist, Outer Hebrides after being hit by car

In the early days of Unix, a date-tagged list of historical events was used by system administrators to add some interest to the system's Message of the Day. Whenever users logged in they would be presented with the latest system notices, perhaps some mildly amusing quotes and one or two lines of historical events, based on the current date.

Today in History (UNIX calendar) uses some of the entries from the original library but is updated with current events as well. Instead of plain text, each entry is now formatted in HTML and each day may include one or more icons of historical figures or celebrities.

Other things unique to the UNIX calendar are references to dates found in fictional literature such as Lord of the Rings, perhaps undue emphasis on people and events that were part of popular culture in the 70's and technical minutiae about computers and operating systems that might not be found in other places.

In association with Amazon, this symbol is a link to related products at amazon.com. Any proceeds resulting from the sales of these products are used to defray the cost of maintaining the Today in History site and editorial efforts.

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