Alexander the Great decisively shatters King Darius III's Persian army at Gaugamela (Arbela), in a tactical masterstroke that leaves him master of the Persian Empire.
Birth of Henry III, King of England born
Rudolf of Hapsburg is elected emperor in Germany.
A General Council of the Church is held at Vienne
Death of Pope Boniface IX
Election of Jobst as King of Germany
Plague breaks out in Florence
Papal Legates arrive in England to discuss the divorce of Henry VIII, King of England, from Catherine of Aragon
The feeble Sultan Mohammed Shah of Persia, hands over power to his 17-year old son Abbas.
John Blow, the composer of the first true opera in English, Venus and Adonis, died and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Brahms did not compose symphonies until his middle age, and Rameau did not produce his first opera until he was in his fifties. The first one was premiered on this day. It was a success, so much so that Rameau was to compose only stage music for the next 30 years.
Naval Capt. James Lawrence, hero of the War of 1812 born
Philadelphia published the first city directory.
In Paris, the National Legislative Assembly holds its first meeting.
Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
The first steamboat reached New Orleans vi the Mississippi. It was called the New Orleans, and was owned by Nicholas J. Roosevelt. It left from Pittsburgh and carried a crew of nine, four servants, a dog, and Mr. and Mrs. Roosevelt.
Robert Gould Shaw, commander of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, first unit of black soldiers in Civil War born
Maria Mitchell, American astronomer, discovers a comet and is elected the same day to the American Academy of Arts--the first woman to be so honored. The King of Denmark awarded her a gold medal for her discovery.
The composer of "The Sorcerer's Apprentice" was born in Paris. Paul Dukas was to teach music for a living, and he was very critical of his students. But he was also critical of himself. Very little of his music survives because he destroyed a lot of it. born
General Lew Wallace is sworn in as governor of New Mexico Territory. He went on to deal with the Lincoln County War, Billy the Kid and write Ben-Hur.
William Edward Boeing, founded aircraft company. born
American churchman A. B. Simpson founded the first school in America to train missionaries, in New York City. Called the Missionary Training Institute in 1894, its name was changed to Nyack College in 1972.
Special delivery mail service began in the United States.
American scholar and devotional writer, Ralph W. Sockman. His best-remembered poem begins: "I met God in the morning, when my day was at its best...." born
Yosemite National Park is dedicated in California.
Congress passed the McKinley Tariff Act, which raised tariffs to a record level.
Novelist Faith Baldwin born
The US Post Office established Rural Free Delivery, with the first routes in West Virginia.
Yosemite becomes a National Park.
The first World Series opened in Boston. The Boston Pilgrims of the American League went on to beat the Pittsburgh Pirates of the National League on October 13, in the eighth game of a best-of-nine series.
Russian-born American virtuoso pianist Vladimir Horowitz born
Henry Ford introduced the Model T automobile to the market; each car cost $825. Over 15 million Model Ts are eventually sold, all of them black.
Outlaw Bonnie Parker (Rowena, Texas) born
A monument was erected in Salt Lake City to honor the sea gulls who ate the grasshoppers which were threatening the crops of the Mormon settlers in 1848. Mahonri Young, grandson of Brigham Young, dedicated the statue.
Former Librarian of Congress Daniel J. Boorstin born
Actor Walter Matthau (Walter Matuschankyasky) born
Actor James Whitmore born
William Rehnquist, chief justice of the United States born
Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (Interesting FACT - Jimmy Carter was the first US president that was born in a hospital). born
Actor Richard Harris born
Actress-singer Julie Andrews born
Actress Stella Stevens born
General Francisco Franco was proclaimed the head of an insurgent Spanish state.
The German Army grinds to a complete halt within the city of Stalingrad.
Allied forces captured Naples during World War Two.
The U.S. First Army begins the siege Aachen, Germany.
Baseball Hall-of-Famer Rod Carew born
Twelve Nazi war criminals are sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trials-- Karl Donitz, Hermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachin von Ribbentrop, Fritz Saukel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg.
Actor Stephen Collins born
Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-tung raised the first flag of the People's Republic of China during a ceremony in Beijing.
Singer Howard Hewett born
Singer Youssou N'Dour born
Roger Maris of the New York Yankees hit his 61st home run during a 162-game season, compared to Babe Ruth's 60 home runs during a 154-game season.
Johnny Carson succeeded Jack Paar as regular host of NBC's "Tonight" show.
The Free Speech Movement was launched at the University of California at Berkeley.
Country singer Kelly Willis born
Rock singer-musician Kevin Griffin (Better Than Ezra) born
Walt Disney World opened in Orlando, Florida.
Singer Keith Duffy (Boyzone) born
Five Nixon aides--Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon's Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell-- go on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
Muhammad Ali defeated Joe Frazier in a fight billed as the "Thriller in Manila."
Former President Jimmy Carter's presidential library and museum were dedicated in Atlanta with help from President Reagan.
Eight people were killed when an earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter scale and an aftershock measuring 5.3 struck the Los Angeles area.
In a continuing shakeup of the Soviet leadership, Mikhail Gorbachev was confirmed as president, succeeding Andrei A. Gromyko.
Thousands of East Germans received a triumphal welcome in West Germany after the communist government agreed to let them leave for the West.
President Bush, addressing the U.N. general Assembly, again condemned Iraq's takeover of Kuwait, but also suggested an unconditional withdrawal could help speed an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Minority Serbs in Croatia proclaimed autonomy.
Air Force Gen. Curtis E. LeMay died at March Air Force Base in California at age 83.
President Bush strongly condemned the military coup in Haiti, suspending U.S. economic and military aid and demanding the immediate return to power of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
The US Senate voted 93-to-six to approve the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. Texas billionaire Ross Perot jumped back into the presidential race.
The USS Saratoga accidentally fired missiles at a Turkish destroyer in the Aegean Sea; five people were killed.
In a case that drew national concern, 12-year-old Polly Klaas was abducted from her Petaluma, California, home by a knife-wielding intruder; her body was found more than two months later. (A suspect, Richard Allen Davis, was later convicted and sentenced to death.)
National Hockey League team owners began a 103-day lockout of their players.
The United States and Japan reached a series of trade agreements, averting a threatened trade war.
Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman and nine other defendants were convicted in New York of conspiring to attack the United States through bombings, assassinations and kidnappings.
An earthquake in southwestern Turkey killed about 90 people.
The minimum wage rose 50 cents to $4.75 cents an hour.
NASA began turning over day-to-day shuttle operations to private industry.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat met at the White House.
A federal grand jury indicted Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczynski in 1994 mail bomb slaying of ad executive.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu freed Hamas spiritual leader Sheik Ahmed Yassin. (Yassin was freed to secure the release of two Mossad agents arrested in Jordan following a botched assassination attempt against Hamas political leader Khalid Mashaal.)
In Pearl, Mississippi, 16-year-old Luke Woodham stabbed his mother to death, then went to school with a rifle and opened fire, killing his former girlfriend and another student and wounding six others.
Seeking to head off threatened NATO attacks, Yugoslavia's Serb leadership invited foreign experts to investigate massacres in Kosovo.
Darryl Strawberry of the New York Yankees was diagnosed with a cancerous tumor on his colon. (After treatment, Strawberry returned to the game in August of 1999.)
South Korean activists thanked the U.S. government for promising to investigate an Associated Press report that U.S. forces allegedly killed several hundred refugees at the start of the Korean War. But the protesters also demanded the United States punish some of the veterans involved and compensate the victims' relatives.
Researchers: Wild gorillas seen using tools
Junk food to be banned in English schools
Minimum wage in United Kingdom increases to Â£5.05
New Zealand airlines relax knife regulations
Apple agrees to replace iPod nanos with cracked screens
Lethal explosions hit Bali
Connecticut becomes third U.S. state to allow same-sex civil unions
Santa Ana Volcano Erupts in El Salvador
Google formally submits bid to provide free WiFi in San Francisco
Hurricane Isaac heads toward Atlantic Canada
U. Michigan Wolverines retake "Little Brown Jug" from U. Minnesota Golden Gophers
Minimum wage in United Kingdom increases to Â£5.35
Michael Schumacher wins Chinese Grand Prix
Highway overpass collapses near Montreal
Wild ducks in Illinois test positive for "low pathogenic" Bird Flu virus
New book by Watergate journalist Bob Woodward claims CIA warned Rice before 9/11
New video shows 9/11 hijackers attending Al-Qaeda camp in Afghanistan
Mumbai Police investigations indicate Pakistani role in 11/7 serial blasts
Fatal fall in Yellowstone National Park
Rugby World Cup: Argentina and France qualify for quarter finals
Man with grenades arrested outside US embassy in Austria
Thousands of Monks in Burma to be imprisoned; Thousands more reported dead
Senegal threatens withdrawal of troops from Darfur
Finnish department store Stockmann bids for fashion chain Lindex
Dow Jones closes at all-time record high
Hirsi Ali returns to the Netherlands
Singer Britney Spears loses custody battle
Fred Thompson raises nearly nine million dollars, falls short of expectations
UEFA Cup 2007â€“08: Kahn, Klose out; Podolski in
A-League 2007-08: Round 6 Results
Champion AFL footballer Chris Mainwaring dies
Nepal names 6 year old girl a 'living goddess'
CanadaVOTES: Animal Alliance (AAEVPC) party leader Liz White running in Toronto Centre
Fifteen killed in apartment fire in Osaka, Japan
Death toll from tsunami in Southeast Asia increases
Rhode Island borrows $90 million from US for jobless claims
British nursery worker admits sexually abusing children
US to withdraw over 4,000 troops from Iraq
Suspected US missile strike kills eight Taliban fighters
Philippines braces for next storm
Tropical Storm Olaf forms in the Pacific
Protests in Ecuador kill one, injure 49
Typhoon Ketsana reaches Cambodia; up to eleven people killed
Over 700 killed after earthquake in Indonesia
Police describe bloody evidence in NY Sen. Monserrate assault trial
New planet found in 'Habitable Zone'
NASA's new space capsule to be ready for test flights by 2013
Man dies in Serbian enclave; could not call ambulance
'Fascinating' and 'provocative' research examines genetic elements of bipolar, schizophrenia
2,200 jobs to be lost as JJB Sports goes into administration
California passes law banning gay-to-straight therapy
Iranian news agency apologises for reproducing The Onion article