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Today in History

1902
Emmy and Tony Award nominated vaudeville, radio, film, television and Broadway actress, Irene Ryan born in El Paso, Texas
1918
Dancer, glamor model and actress, Rita Hayworth born in Brooklyn, New York
1921
Comedian, stage, screen and televison actor, Tom Poston born in Columbus, Ohio
1933
A refugee from Nazi Germany named Albert Einstein arrives in the United States
1938
Motorcycle daredevil Robert Craig "Evel" Knievel, Jr born in Butte, Montana
1948
Actress Margot Kidder born in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
1968
Musician and singer, David Nesta "Ziggy" Marley born in Trenchtown, Jamaica
1979
Mother Teresa awarded Nobel Peace Prize
1989
Loma Prieta quake (7.1) hits Bay Area
1244
The Sixth Crusade ends when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilates the Frankish army.
1346
English forces defeat the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's Cross, Scotland.
1651
Defeated by Oliver Cromwell at Worcester, Charles II of England flees to France.
1707
Johann Sebastian Bach got married to his cousin Maria Barbara Bach. That was the first of Bach's two marriages. He had children by both.
1711
Jupiter Hammon, America's first published black poet born
1777
At one of the turning points of the American Revolution, British Gen. John Burgoyne surrendered to American Gen. Horatio Gates at Saratoga, N.Y.
1849
Chopin died in Paris of tuberculosis.
1880
Charles Kraft (Kraft Foods) born
1893
Actress Spring Byington (Please Don't Eat the Daisies, Angels in the Outfield, Jezebel, Little Women, Laramie, December Bride) born
1903
Actress Irene Ryan born
1903
Author Nathaniel West (Miss Lonelyhearts, Day of the Locust) born
1913
Zeppelin LII explodes over London, killing 28.
1915
Playwright Arthur Miller born
1917
Actress Marsha Hunt born
1918
Actress Rita Hayworth born
1919
The Radio Corporation of America was created.
1920
Actor Montgomery Clift (From Here to Eternity, Suddenly Last Summer, Judgment at Nuremberg, The Misfits, A Place in the Sun) born
1926
Actress Beverly Garland born
1926
Actress Julie Adams born
1927
Actor Tom Poston born
1930
Newspaper columnist Jimmy Breslin born
1931
Mobster Al Capone was convicted of income tax evasion and sentenced to eleven years in prison. (He was released in 1939).
1933
Albert Einstein arrived in the United States as a refugee from Nazi Germany.
1938
Daredevil Evel Knievel born
1941
Singer Jim Seals (Seals & Crofts) born
1941
Country singer Earl Thomas Conley born
1941
The U.S. destroyer Kearney is damaged by a German U-boat torpedo off Iceland; 11 Americans are killed.
1942
Singer Gary Puckett born
1945
Juan Peron became dictator of Argentina. He remained in power for 11 years before being overthrown.
1945
Colonel Juan Peron staged a coup, becoming absolute ruler of Argentina.
1947
Actor Michael McKean born
1948
Actor George Wendt born
1948
Actress Margot Kidder born
1950
Actor Howard Rollins born
1955
Actor Sam Bottoms born
1956
Astronaut Mae Jemison born
1957
French author Albert Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
1958
Country singer Alan Jackson born
1960
Charles Van Doren and 13 others were arrested for fraud in connection with rigged quiz shows.
1962
Animator Mike Judge ("King of the Hill") born
1967
Hair opens at New York's Public Theater
1968
Reggae singer Ziggy Marley born
1972
Singer Wyclef Jean born
1973
Arab oil-producing nations announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan; the result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974.
1973
First OPEC oil embargo
1977
West German commandos stormed a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner that was on the ground in Mogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages and killing three of the four hijackers.
1979
Mother Teresa of India was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her years of work on behalf of the destitute in Calcutta.
1980
Mt. St. Helens erupts 3 times in 24 hours, in Washington.
1987
First lady Nancy Reagan underwent a modified radical mastectomy at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland.
1988
Philip Morris Companies Incorporated launched an $11.5 billion takeover bid for Kraft Incorporated.
1989
Earthquake strikes San Francisco bay area minutes before the start of a World Series game there. The earthquake registers 6.9 on the Richter scale--66 are killed and damage is estimated at $10 billion.
1990
In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Secretary of State James Baker said Iraqi President Saddam Hussein "must fail if peace is to succeed."
1990
The Cincinnati Reds opened up a 2-0 World Series lead, beating the Oakland A's 5-4.
1992
Japanese exchange student Yoshi Hattori, 16, was shot and killed by Rodney Peairs in Center, Louisiana, after Hattori and his American host mistakenly knocked on Peairs' door while looking for a Halloween party. (Peairs was acquitted of manslaughter, but in a civil trial was ordered to pay more than $650,000 in damages to Hattori's family.)
1993
Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, in a CBS interview, said he would offer legislation restricting President Clinton's authority to send troops to Haiti.
1993
The Philadelphia Phillies defeated the Toronto Blue Jays, 6-to-4, evening the World Series at one game each.
1994
Leaders of Israel and Jordan initialed a draft peace treaty. Negotiators for the Angolan government and rebels agreed to a peace treaty to end their 19-year civil war.
1995
President Clinton told wealthy contributors at a Houston fund-raiser that "you think I raised your taxes too much. It might surprise you to know that I think I raised them too much, too" a statement that drew criticism from both Republicans and Democrats.
1995
The Cleveland Indians won the American League pennant by defeating the Seattle Mariners, 4-0, in game six of their playoff series.
1995
A bomb exploded aboard a Paris subway car, wounding 29 people.
1996
Russian President Boris Yeltsin fired security chief Alexander Lebed, one day after the former general was accused by a rival of building his own rogue army.
1997
The remains of revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara were laid to rest in his adopted Cuba, 30 years after his execution in Bolivia.
1998
A pipeline explosion and fire in southwest Nigeria killed some 700 people.
1999
The FBI reported that serious crimes reported to police declined for seventh straight year in 1998 and murder and robbery rates reached 30-year lows.
1999
Former nurse Orville Lynn Majors was convicted of murdering six patients at a western Indiana hospital; the jury deadlocked on a seventh count. (Majors is serving a 360-year prison sentence.)
2005
Tropical Storm Wilma forms, ties record for busiest hurricane season
2005
New York Times reporter Judith Miller breaks silence on Plame leak investigation
2005
Persistent rain storm in Northeast USA comes to an end
2005
Iraqis say U.S. bombing killed 39 civilians
2005
Jens Stoltenberg reveals the next Norwegian cabinet
2005
5.1 earthquake hits north of Tokyo
2005
Chinese astronauts in Shenzhou VI return safely
2005
5 killed in return bus trip from marching band competition
2005
Chicago White Sox win American League baseball pennant
2005
Iraq counting ballots
2006
United Future announces tax cuts in 2008 for New Zealand
2006
Makati City Mayor suspended
2006
Philippine President Arroyo tells business leaders security is top priority
2006
National Guard dispatched to Buffalo, New York to help with storm cleanup
2006
Interview with Brodrick Thorpe, City Council candidate for Ward 10 in Mississauga, Canada
2006
Rob Broudie, top British lawyer, found dead
2006
Eritrea moves troops into UN buffer zone
2006
Foreign Secretary level talks between India and Pakistan to resume in November
2007
Putin promises to complete Iran's nuclear reactor
2007
American Indian Movement spokesperson dies, age 75
2007
First A380 enters commercial service
2007
Satirist Stephen Colbert runs for U.S. President
2007
Richard Roberts takes leave of absence from Oral Roberts University
2007
Floods spared historic Farnsworth House in Illinois
2007
Dalai Lama seeks autonomy not independence
2007
Drug-resistant staph deaths surpass AIDS in the United States
2008
Fire ruins historical building of Prague Exhibition Grounds
2008
Spanish airline LTE suspends all flights
2008
Fear and loathing on the campaign trail, September 2008
2008
Second pipeline blast hits Canadian region
2008
Police fight police in Brazil protest
2008
Lost tomb of 'Gladiator' real life Roman inspiration found
2008
Judge in Nebraska says thou shalt not sue God
2008
Clash of cultures: Somali and Latino workers at U.S. meat packing plants
2008
IMF prepares to help Hungary and Ukraine
2008
'Mobile phone dermatitis' linked to nickel deposits
2008
Apple users criticize lack of FireWire port on MacBook
2009
Crude oil prices reach one-year high
2009
Politicians call for NY Sen. Monserrate to resign after assault conviction
2009
Buffalo, NY firefighter injured while battling blaze
2009
Botswana holds parliamentary elections
2009
One million protest against Spanish abortion liberalisation
2009
International pressure mounts on Guinean military junta to withdraw from elections
2009
6.4 magnitude earthquake hits Indonesia
2009
Baby survives after stroller hit by train in Melbourne, Australia
2010
Greek film director Yannis Dalianides dies at age 87
2010
Teenager disappears in Pichilemu, Chile
2010
Mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot dies aged 85
2010
NASCAR: Jamie McMurray wins Bank of America 500
2011
Herman Cain: SimCity rumor 'a lie'
2011
Boston Globe criticised for outing FBI informant
2011
Football: Wigan 1-3 Bolton Wanderers
2011
'Homer Simpson' contributes to U.S. presidential candidate Buddy Roemer

In the early days of Unix, a date-tagged list of historical events was used by system administrators to add some interest to the system's Message of the Day. Whenever users logged in they would be presented with the latest system notices, perhaps some mildly amusing quotes and one or two lines of historical events, based on the current date.

Today in History (UNIX calendar) uses some of the entries from the original library but is updated with current events as well. Instead of plain text, each entry is now formatted in HTML and each day may include one or more icons of historical figures or celebrities.

Other things unique to the UNIX calendar are references to dates found in fictional literature such as Lord of the Rings, perhaps undue emphasis on people and events that were part of popular culture in the 70's and technical minutiae about computers and operating systems that might not be found in other places.

In association with Amazon, this symbol is a link to related products at amazon.com. Any proceeds resulting from the sales of these products are used to defray the cost of maintaining the Today in History site and editorial efforts.

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