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Today in History

1857
Mountain Meadows Massacre.
1885
Painter, poet and novelist, D.H. Lawrence born in Eastwood, England
1913
College Football Hall of Fame coach, Paul "Bear" Bryant born in Moro Bottom, Arkansas
1924
Pro Football Hall of Fame coach, Tom Landry born in Mission, Texas
1943
Liquidation of the Ghettos in Minsk and Lida
1945
Singer, songwriter and acoustic guitarist, Leo Kottke born in Athens, Georgia
1958
ALMA Award winning actress Roxann Dawson born Roxann Caballero in Los Angeles, California
1994
Frank Eugene Corder attempts to crash a stolen Cessna into the White House
2001
2,977 people are killed when nineteen Islamic terrorists hijack four commercial airliners, crashing two planes into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon and one into a field in Pennsylvania.
2003
John Ritter dies on the set of 8 Simple Rules
2012
4 people are killed, including Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, when Islamic terrorists attack the US diplomatic mission at Benghazi, Libya
812
Election of Louis, son of Charlemagne, as Holy Roman Emperor
813
Coronation, by his own hand, of Louis I "the Pious," as Holy Roman Emperor
1227
Plague strikes the 5th Crusade, of Fredrick II, ending it
1297
Scots under William Wallace defeat English at Stirling Bridge.
1458
Italian writer Bernardo Accolti (Virginia) born
1522
Italian biologist and medical experimentor Ulisse Aldrovandi born
1523
Poet Pierre de Ronsard born
1525
Elector of Brandenburg Johan Georg (1571-91) born
1589
Barbara Huebmeyer, Appela Huebmeyer and Anna Schnelling burned as witches.
1649
Massacre of Drogheada, on orders of Oliver Cromwell
1672
Colonial American clergyman Solomon Stoddard, 29, was ordained pastor of the Congregational church in Northampton, Mass. He remained at this pulpit for the next 57 years.
1695
Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeat the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
1700
Neoclassical English poet James Thompson - "The Seasons" and "The Task,"
1700
Songwriter James Thomson (Rule Britannia) born
1709
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, wins the bloodiest battle of the 18th century at great cost, against the French at Malplaquet.
1733
Francois Couperin died. This prolific Baroque composer reportedly said: "Since hardly anyone has composed more than I have, I hope my family will find in my wallet something to make them regret my passing."
1740
The first mention of an African American doctor or dentist in the colonies is made in the Pennsylvania Gazette.
1777
Troops commanded by General George Washington were defeated by the British under General Sir William Howe in the Battle of Brandywine.
1786
The Convention of Annapolis opens with the aim of revising the articles of confederation.
1789
Alexander Hamilton was appointed the first US Secretary of the Treasury.
1798
German mineralogist, mathematician and physicist Franz E Neumann born
1802
Piedmont, Italy, is annexed by France.
1814
An American fleet, led by Thomas Macdonough, scored a decisive victory over the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain in the War of 1812.
1841
All members of President John Tyler's Cabinet resigned, except Secretary of State Daniel Webster, in protest of Tyler's veto of a banking bill.
1851
The Swedish singer Jenny Lind began touring America in the first private railroad car
1857
Mormon fanatic John D. Lee, angered over President Buchanan's order to remove Brigham Young from governorship of the Utah Territory, incited a band of Mormons and Indians to massacre a California-bound wagon train of 135 in Mountain Meadows, Utah .
1862
American short story writer O. Henry (William Sydney Porter) -"The Gift of the Magi," and "The last Leaf" born
1864
A 10-day truce is declared between generals Sherman and Hood so civilians may leave Atlanta, Georgia.
1885
Author D.H. Lawrence - Lady Chatterley's Lover and Sons and Lovers born
1895
Sergei Rachmaninoff, already famous as a pianist, finished his First Symphony. The performance was terrible, the symphony failed and Rachmaninoff went into psychoanalysis for two years before he could compose again.
1897
A strike by coal miners in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia ended, with the miners winning an eight-hour work day. (The day before, about 20 miners were killed when sheriff's deputies opened fire on them in Pennsylvania.)
1899
Country singer and former Louisiana governor Jimmie Davis born
1902
German Marxist philosopher Theodor Adorno. born
1913
University of Alabama football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant born
1917
Jessica Mitford, writer who championed civil rights. She is best known for her book The American Way of Death. born
1917
Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos born
1918
The volunteer medical aide Ernest Hemingway left the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan after leg injuries of an indeterminate nature. He fell in love with one of the nurses, Agnes von Kurovsky.
1923
Actress Betsy Drake born
1924
Football Hall-of-Famer Tom Landry - Coach of the Dallas Cowboys professional football team, who won two Super Bowls born
1926
Actor Lee Richardson born
1928
Actor Earl Holliman born
1928
The first coast-to-coast busline service in America began.
1936
President Roosevelt dedicated Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam) by pressing a key in Washington to signal the startup of the dam's first hydroelectric generator in Nevada.
1940
Movie director Brian De Palma born
1943
Rock musician Mickey Hart (The Grateful Dead) born
1943
Singer-actress-dancer Lola Falana born
1944
President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in Canada at the second Quebec Conference.
1945
Singer-musician Leo Kottke born
1954
The "Miss America" pageant made its network TV debut on ABC; Miss California, Lee Ann Meriwether, was crowned the winner.
1954
Actor Reed Birney born
1957
Musician Jon Moss (Culture Club) born
1958
Rock musician Mick Talbot (The Style Council) born
1962
Actress Kristy McNichol born
1962
The Beatles recorded their first single for EMI, "Love Me Do" and "PS I Love You," at EMI studios in London.
1962
Thurgood Marshall appointed a judge of the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals.
1963
Actress Virginia Madsen born
1964
Actress Roxann Dawson ("Star Trek born
1965
The 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), arrives in South Vietnam and is stationed at An Khe.
1965
Musician-composer Moby born
1967
"The Carol Burnett Show" premiered on CBS.
1967
Singer Harry Connick Junior born
1968
Rock musician Bart Van Der Zeeluw (K's Choice) born
1969
"Great White Wonder", said to be the first bootleg record album, appeared in record stores in Los Angeles. The two-record set featured unreleased Bob Dylan songs.
1970
Actress Laura Wright ("Guiding Light") born
1971
Former Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev died at age 77.
1973
The elected Socialist government of Salvador Allende, of Chile, was toppled in a right-wing military coup supported by the CIA. Allende died, reportedly by his own hand.
1974
"Little House On The Prairie" starring Michael Landon made its television debut. The show also starred Melissa Gilbert.
1977
Rapper Mr. Black born
1978
Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian defector, died at a British hospital four days after being stabbed by a man wielding a poisoned umbrella tip.
1982
Chris Evert Lloyd won her sixth U.S. Open by defeating Hana Mandlikova 6-3, 6-1.
1984
President Reagan announced he would meet with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko at the White House on September 28.
1985
Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds cracked career hit number 4,192 off Eric Show of the San Diego Padres, eclipsing the record held by Ty Cobb.
1985
A U.S. satellite glided through the tail of the Giacobini-Zinner comet in the first-ever on-the-spot sampling of a comet.
1986
On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeted 86.61 points, ending the day at 1,792.89.
1987
The CBS TV network went "black" for six minutes after anchorman Dan Rather walked off the set of "The CBS Evening News" because a tennis tournament being carried by the network ran overtime. (The tennis coverage ended abruptly, catching the anchorman off guard.)
1988
Mats Wilander of Sweden won the men's US Open title in New York.
1989
The exodus of East German refugees from Hungary to West Germany by way of Austria began.
1990
President Bush addressed Congress on the Persian Gulf crisis, vowing that "Saddam Hussein will fail" in his takeover of Kuwait.
1991
Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced the Kremlin would withdraw thousands of troops from Cuba, a move bitterly denounced by the Havana government.
1991
In the Middle East, hopes grew for the release of Western hostages in Lebanon after Israel freed 51 prisoners.
1992
President Bush announced he was approving the sale of 72 F-15 jet fighters to Saudi Arabia.
1992
Hurricane "Iniki" struck Hawaii, leaving at least five people dead and more than ten-thousand homes damaged or destroyed.
1993
Antoine Izmery, a prominent supporter of exiled Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, was shot and killed outside a church in Port-au-Prince; the UN mission accused Haitian armed forces of involvement.
1993
Conductor Erich Leinsdorf died in Zurich, Switzerland, at age 81.
1994
At the 46th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards, "Frasier" won best comedy series while "Picket Fences" was named best drama series.
1994
Actress Jessica Tandy died in Easton, Connecticut, at age 85.
1994
Andre Agassi won the men's championship at the U.S. Open tennis tournament, defeating Michael Stich.
1995
The prosecution in the O.J. Simpson murder trial in Los Angeles reluctantly began its rebuttal case, as ordered by Judge Lance Ito, after the defense refused to rest.
1996
Two top officials with the Health and Human Services Department resigned over President Clinton's signing of the Republican welfare overhaul bill (another official had resigned the month before).
1996
Hurricane "Hortense" continued churning its way through the Caribbean.
1997
The Army issued a searing indictment of itself, asserting that "sexual harassment exists throughout the Army, crossing gender, rank and racial lines."
1997
Scots voted to create their own Parliament after 290 years of union with England.
1998
Congress released Kenneth Starr's voluminous report that offered graphic details of President Clinton's alleged sexual misconduct and leveled accusations of perjury and obstruction of justice; the president's attorneys quickly issued a point-by-point rebuttal.
1998
Russia's fractious parliament came together and confirmed compromise candidate Yevgeny Primakov as prime minister.
1998
Divers off Nova Scotia recovered the cockpit voice recorder from Swissair Flight 111, which had crashed September second with 229 people aboard.
1999
Serena Williams won the U.S. Open women's title, beating top-seeded Martina Hingis, 6-3, 7-6 (7-4).
1999
Eric Milton pitched a no-hitter for the Minnesota Twins in their 7-0 win over the Anaheim Angels.
1999
President Clinton, attending a conference of Asia-Pacific leaders in New Zealand, demanded that Indonesia allow an international force to restore peace in East Timor.
2001
Terrorists crash hijacked planes into the World Trade Center, Pentagon
2005
Red Cross asks for more volunteers
2005
UK Chancellor blames OPEC for oil crisis, refuses to cut fuel tax
2005
Loyalist rioting erupts in Belfast
2005
Katrina raised gas prices higher than ever
2005
Katrina survivor searchers prepare for the worst
2005
Chile remembers its own September 11 anniversary
2006
German police seize Tor anonymity servers
2006
Wrong way yacht race postponed
2006
Al-Qaeda releases 9/11 message
2006
CMSU computing team discovers another record size prime
2006
King of Tonga dies, aged 88
2006
Lucknow: Convent school ransacked by BJYM activists
2006
Pope visits homeland in Germany
2006
OPEC to keep oil production at current levels
2007
Second video of Osama bin Laden surfaces
2007
SEMI predicts Taiwan will become the second largest semiconductor industry market in 2007
2007
Twenty20 World Championship: West Indies vs South Africa
2007
Adam Air ticket sales revive after post-crash slump
2007
20-year-old captures abusive police officer on tape
2007
Downing Street welcomes new resident cat
2007
Rugby World Cup: Argentina 33 - 3 Georgia
2008
Norwegian airline opens new domestic destinations from Moss Airport, Rygge
2008
Large earthquakes reported in Indonesia and Japan
2009
September 11 attacks remembered in US
2009
England and Wales Director of Public Prosecutions to seek bomb plot retrial
2009
California lawmaker denies affairs after sexual discussion becomes public
2009
Businessman in India's 'house of horrors' case has rape, murder convictions overturned
2009
World's oldest person dies in California at age 115
2009
Timothy Dalton to voice a character in Toy Story 3
2009
Man banned from keeping animals after forcing cat to inhale cannabis
2009
US and Vietnam begin talks to decontaminate areas affected by Agent Orange
2009
Deadly flash flooding hits northwestern Turkey
2009
Musician Phil Collins announces he will never play drums again
2010
Aboriginal primacy bill introduced to the New South Wales legislative assembly
2012
Tony Abbott competes in Wagga Wagga fun run
2012
Samoa looking ahead to Rio Paralympics with eye on powerlifting

In the early days of Unix, a date-tagged list of historical events was used by system administrators to add some interest to the system's Message of the Day. Whenever users logged in they would be presented with the latest system notices, perhaps some mildly amusing quotes and one or two lines of historical events, based on the current date.

Today in History (UNIX calendar) uses some of the entries from the original library but is updated with current events as well. Instead of plain text, each entry is now formatted in HTML and each day may include one or more icons of historical figures or celebrities.

Other things unique to the UNIX calendar are references to dates found in fictional literature such as Lord of the Rings, perhaps undue emphasis on people and events that were part of popular culture in the 70's and technical minutiae about computers and operating systems that might not be found in other places.

In association with Amazon, this symbol is a link to related products at amazon.com. Any proceeds resulting from the sales of these products are used to defray the cost of maintaining the Today in History site and editorial efforts.

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