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Today in History

1189
King Richard the Lion-Hearted crowned
1783
Treaty of Paris officially ends Revolutionary War
1897
Screenwriter and short story author, Sally Benson born in St. Louis, Missouri
1910
Singer and actress, Kitty Carlisle born in New Orleans, Louisiana
1913
Film and television actor, Alan Ladd born in Hot Springs, Arkansas
1923
Award winning cartoonist, Addison Morton "Mort" Walker born in El Dorado, Kansas
1930
Science fiction and fantasy writer, Cherry Wilder born Cherry Barbara Grimm in Auckland, New Zealand
1932
Singer, Golden Globe and Emmy Award winning actress, Verla Eileen Regina Brennen born in Los Angeles, California
1943
Las Vegas showgirl, model and Academy Award nominated actress, Valerie Perrine born in Galveston, Texas
1965
Golden Globe Award winning actor, Charles Irwin "Charlie" Sheen born in New York City
1976
Emmy Award nominated actress, Ashley Jones born in Memphis, Tennessee
590
Gregory I ("the Great") is consecrated pope. Regarded as the father of the medieval papacy and last of four Latin "Doctors of the Church." He was the first pope to aspire to secular power, the man for whom Gregorian Chant is named, and one of the main organizers of Roman liturgy and its music. He was also one of the prime promoters of monasticism.
1189
England's King Richard the First (the Lion-Hearted) was crowned in Westminster.
1190
Richard I and his army arrive at Messina, Sicily
1260
Mamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeat Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
1346
Edward III, King of England, lays siege to Calais
1390
Geoffrey Chaucer robbed of 20 pounds belonging to the King at the "foul oak" in Kent
1529
Suliman "The Lawgiver" occupies Buda, Hungary
1568
Composer Adriano Banchieri born
1592
Death of Robert Greene
1596
Nicolo Amati, violin maker born
1608
Flemish chairman of military Pieter Stockmans born
1650
Parliament defeats Scots; issuance of first campaign medals
1651
Battle at Worcester-Oliver Cromwell destroys English royalists
1654
First Protectorate Parliament meets
1658
Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of England, dies.
1683
Turkish troops break through defense of Vienna
1695
Italian violinist and composer Pietro Antonio Locatelli born
1697
King William's War in America ends with Treaty of Ryswick
1703
Johan-Theodoor van Bayern, prince-bishop of Luik and cardinal born
1719
Composer Ferdinand Zellbell born
1728
Matthew Boulton, English engineer who invented the steam engine with James Watt. born
1752
US adopts Gregorian calender (becomes Sept 14)
1752
This day never happened nor next 10 as England adopts Gregorian Calendar. People riot thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives
1757
Charles X, Versailles France, Duke of Prussia born
1778
Composer Jean Nicolas Auguste Kreutzer born
1783
The Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the seven-year American Revolutionary War and recognizing U.S. independence from Britain.
1789
Composer Ludvig Anton Edmund Passy born
1803
Teacher Prudence Crandall, controversial for her efforts to educate black girls founder of school for "young ladies of colour" born
1811
John Humphrey Noyes, found Oneida Community (Perfectionists) born
1833
The first successful one-cent, or penny, newspaper was published. Benjamin H. Day issued the first copy of "The New York Sun." By 1826, the paper had the largest circulation in the country - 30,000.
1838
Frederick Douglass escapes slavery disguised as a sailor. He would later write The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass, his memoirs about slave life.
1849
California State Constitutional Convention convenes in Monterey
1849
Author Sarah Orne Jewett "Tales of New England" born
1850
A German musical journal published an article that said that truly European music could never be composed by Jews because Jews, were a migrating race who would forever be aliens in their adopted country. The real author was none other than Richard Wagner.
1856
Architect Louis Sullivan, called the father of the skyscraper and father of modern US architecture. born
1860
Merchant Edward Albert Filene. He established US credit union movement born
1863
Norse author Hans Aanrud (Slve Solfeng) born
1864
Composer Hale Ascher Vander Cook born
1865
German theologist and historian Wilhelm Bousset born
1875
Auto designer Ferdinand Porsche born
1894
American neo-orthodox theologian H. Richard Niebuhr, professor at Yale University and author of Christ and Culture (1951) born
1899
Sir Frank MacFarlane Burnet, Austrialian virologist who was recognised for his work on diseases such as influenza, polio, and cholera. born
1900
British annex Natal (South Africa).
1913
Actor Alan Ladd born
1914
Actress Kitty Carlisle Hart (Catherine Holzman) panelist Tell the Truth. born
1916
The Allies turned back the Germans in the World War I Battle of Verdun.
1918
Actress Helen Wagner ("As the World Turns") born
1919
Women gain the right to vote in Italy.
1923
"Beetle Bailey" cartoonist Mort Walker born
1925
Country singer Hank Thompson born
1926
Actress Irene Papas born
1926
Actress Anne Jackson born
1927
"Time" magazine contributing editor Hugh Sidey born
1933
Country singer Tompall Glaser born
1935
Actress Eileen Brennan (Emmy Award-winning actress Benjamin) born
1935
Sir Malcolm Campbell became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 miles an hour. Campbell drove his Bluebird Special on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah at a speed of 304.331 MPH
1939
Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland. Britain's Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, announced the declaration of war against Germany at 11:15 a.m. Britain was quickly joined by France, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada.
1940
Actress Pauline Collins born
1942
Rock singer-musician Al Jardine (The Beach Boys) born
1943
Actress Valerie Perrine born
1943
The British Eighth Army invaded Italy during World War Two, the same day Italy signed a secret armistice with the allies.
1948
Rock musician Donald Brewer (Grand Funk Railroad) born
1955
Rock guitarist Steve Jones (The Sex Pistols) born
1965
Actor Costas Mandylor born
1965
Actor Charlie Sheen born
1965
Rock singer-musician Todd Lewis (The Toadies) born
1967
Lieutenant General Ngyuen Van Thieu is elected president of South Vietnam.
1967
Motorists in Sweden began driving on the right-hand side of the road, instead of the left.
1967
The original version of the television game show "What's My Line?," hosted by John Charles Daly, broadcast its final episode after more than 17 years on CBS. Panelists on the first show were: Dorothy Kilgallen, Louis Untermeyer, Dr. Richard Hoffman and NJ Governor Harold Hoffman. Arlene Francis and Bennett Cerf joined the show a short time later. Kilgallen, Cerf and Francis were the continuing regulars for fifteen years. Fred Allen, Hal Block and Steve Allen served as panelists for short stints at different times.
1970
Football coach Vince Lombardi died in Washington DC.
1973
Singer Jennifer Paige born
1976
The unmanned US spacecraft "Viking Two" landed on Mars to take the first close-up, color photographs of the planet's surface.
1978
Pope John Paul the First was installed as the 264th pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church.
1979
Hurricane "David" struck along the central Florida coast, leaving several people dead and millions of dollars in damage.
1981
David Brinkley ended an illustrious 38-year career with NBC News. He then moved to ABC News.
1985
The space shuttle Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, ending a seven-day mission that included the retrieval, repair and redeployment of a malfunctioning satellite.
1985
Arson experts in Passaic, New Jersey, believed that children may have started a trash bin fire that spread and destroyed dozens of houses and factories, causing $400 million in damage.
1985
President Reagan ranked as "best-mannered person" in the country, in a list compiled by etiquette expert Marjabelle Stewart.
1986
American officials said the United States had approached the Soviet Union with a proposal to free American journalist Nicholas Daniloff in exchange for granting pretrial release to accused Soviet spy Gennadiy Zakharov.
1987
A Soviet prosecutor accused West German pilot Mathias Rust of seeking "cheap popularity" by landing a private plane in Moscow's Red Square, and demanded that Rust be sentenced to eight years at hard labor. (Rust was convicted, but freed the following August.)
1988
On the presidential campaign trail, Democrat Michael Dukakis paid a visit to Ellis Island in New York, while Republican George Bush met reporters at his official Washington residence.
1989
The United States began shipping a $65 million package of military aircraft and weapons to help Columbia fight its war against drug lords.
1989
A Cubana de Aviacion jetliner crashed after takeoff in Havana, killing all 126 aboard and 26 people on the ground.
1990
Dr. David Acer, a Florida dentist, died of AIDS after apparently infecting five of his patients with the HIV virus.
1990
President Bush returned to Washington from his Maine vacation home to prepare for his summit in Finland with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
1990
Jerry Lewis dedicated his 25th Labor Day telethon to raise funds for the fight against muscular dystrophy to the late Sammy Davis.
1991
Twenty-five people were killed when fire broke out at the Imperial Food Products chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, N.C.
1991
Academy Award-winning director Frank Capra, whose films included ''It Happened One Night,'' ''Mr. Smith Goes to Washington'' and ''It's a Wonderful Life,'' died in La Quinta, Calif., at age 94.
1992
Baseball owners voted 18-to-9-to-one to ask commissioner Fay Vincent to resign.
1992
Nobel laureate geneticist Barbara McClintock died at 90.
1992
An Italian relief plane was shot down by ground-to-air missiles outside of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
1993
The Labor Department reported the nation's unemployment rate edged down to a two-year low of six-point-seven percent the previous month.
1993
Placido Domingo recorded, for Deutsche Grammophon, with Cheryl Studer singing Desdemona and Sergei Leiferkus playing Iago. Myung-Whun Chung conducted the orchestra of the Paris Opera-Bastille.
1994
An American Indian Tribal panel in Alaska exiled two teenagers, who beat and robbed a pizza delivery man, to an uninhabited, offshore island for a year.
1994
China and Russia proclaimed an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would no longer target nuclear missiles or use force against each other.
1995
Testing Serb will, the United Nations reopened a route to Sarajevo and threatened more air attacks if the rebel stranglehold of the Bosnian capital didn't end.
1996
The United States launched 27 cruise missiles at "selected air defense targets" in Iraq as punishment for Iraq's invasion of Kurdish safe havens.
1997
The US Senate voted to ban most federal financing for abortions provided by the managed-care industry.
1997
Arizona Governor Fife Symington was convicted of lying to get millions in loans to shore up his collapsing real estate empire. (Symington, who resigned as governor, is appealing his convictions on six counts after one count was later thrown out.)
1998
President Clinton visited Omagh, Northern Ireland, walking down the street where a car bomb had killed 29, and offered his condolences to the families of the victims.
1999
NASA temporarily grounded its space shuttle fleet after inspections had uncovered damaged wires that could endanger a mission.
1999
A French judge closed a two-year inquiry into the car crash that killed Princess Diana, dismissing all charges against nine photographers and a press motorcyclist, and concluding the accident was caused by an inebriated driver.
2005
US unemployment fell to four-year low before Katrina
2005
Cape Verde to launch first public university, with Brazil's support
2005
Liberia's World Cup woes averted
2005
Swazi princess beaten by government official for wild party
2005
Blizzard Entertainment's victory over bnetd sealed in Appeals Court
2005
Sun retires the Sun Industry Standards Source License
2005
Federal government begins employing strategies to repair New Orleans
2005
Rapper Kanye West denounces Bush response, American media at hurricane relief telethon
2005
Chimpanzee genome sequenced
2005
Mayor of New Orleans Ray Nagin slams Bush, federal government in radio interview
2005
French President Jacques Chirac hospitalized
2005
Deadly blaze in Paris possibly caused by arson
2005
Federal response to Katrina a "national disgrace"
2005
Chief Justice of the United States, William H Rehnquist, dies at age 80
2005
Many nations offer material aid to hurricane victims; Bush refuses to accept
2006
14 Indian, Pakistani pilgrims killed in Iraq
2006
Al-Qaeda releases new videotape
2006
Two-day NATO offensive sees 80 captured, over 200 fatalities
2006
Second in command of al-Qaeda in Iraq in custody
2007
Toads cause traffic jam on British Columbia highway
2007
Apple cancels NBC Fall TV lineup on iTunes
2007
Nominees of Taiwan Sports Elite Awards announced and acknowledged
2007
Hurricane Felix now Category 5
2007
Death toll in fatal fire in Croatia climbs to eight
2007
Interview: cracked iPhone working in New Zealand
2007
Drunk coach driver arrested after crash injures at least 30
2007
Iraq peace talks draw to a close in Finland
2007
Fred Thompson to make Presidential announcement on The Tonight Show
2007
Rumors say U.S. to remove North Korea from list of terrorist nations
2007
"Island Man" spends a night on 162 Scottish islands
2008
Professional wrestler Walter "Killer" Kowalski dies at age 81
2008
US Senator Joseph Lieberman speaks at Republican National Convention
2008
Service held in Nova Scotia on tenth anniversary of Swissair crash that killed 229
2008
UN aid plane crash kills 17 in Democratic Republic of the Congo
2008
DHS relies on Wikipedia for asylum information, appeals court rules against use
2008
Great White offers US$1 million settlement over Station nightclub fire
2008
Questions raised about McCain's choice of Palin, aides insist "thorough vetting" process
2009
Gunmen kill seventeen at drug rehab centre in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
2009
Music videos return to UK version of YouTube after agreement with PRS
2009
Brush fire threatens Molokai, Hawaii
2010
Magnitude 7.0 earthquake hits New Zealand
2010
Scientist detained after bomb scare closes Miami airport
2010
New South Wales Legislative Assembly votes in favor of same-sex adoption
2010
Jamaica to host the 2011 CONCACAF under-17 football championship
2010
Australian teacher drops 'gay' from kookaburra folk song
2010
Texas woman accused of shooting landlord dies in hospital
2010
Microsoft releases Windows Phone 7 to manufacturing
2011
Australian Greens leader criticises media ethics
2011
Study concludes 9/11 firefighters are 19% more likely to develop cancer
2012
Slovakia's Alena Kanova defeats Sara Head, taking bronze in class 3 table tennis
2012
Philippine economic growth slows slightly in 2nd quarter of 2012
2012
Gliders suffer first loss in London Paralympics against Canada
2012
Slovenia goes down to China in their final sitting volleyball game in pool play at London Paralympics
2012
Fifteen medals awarded on London Paralympics fourth night of track and field
2012
Medals awarded at final day of rowing at London Paralympics
2012
'I wanna tell you a story': English entertainer Max Bygraves dies at age 89

In the early days of Unix, a date-tagged list of historical events was used by system administrators to add some interest to the system's Message of the Day. Whenever users logged in they would be presented with the latest system notices, perhaps some mildly amusing quotes and one or two lines of historical events, based on the current date.

Today in History (UNIX calendar) uses some of the entries from the original library but is updated with current events as well. Instead of plain text, each entry is now formatted in HTML and each day may include one or more icons of historical figures or celebrities.

Other things unique to the UNIX calendar are references to dates found in fictional literature such as Lord of the Rings, perhaps undue emphasis on people and events that were part of popular culture in the 70's and technical minutiae about computers and operating systems that might not be found in other places.

In association with Amazon, this symbol is a link to related products at amazon.com. Any proceeds resulting from the sales of these products are used to defray the cost of maintaining the Today in History site and editorial efforts.

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